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Introduction to Sociology Exploring patterns like those noted above in relation to U.S. healthcare, Medical How can you contribute to the honors college community essay is concerned with the distribution of healthcare services globally, in particular inequalities in healthcare, and how conceptions of health have changed over time. While technology has advanced the practice of medicine and generally improved health, not all people have the same access to health care or the same quality of health care. According to the Health Resources and Services Administration of the U.S., Presentation - Assignment Point disparities are the "population-specific differences in the presence of disease, health outcomes, or access to health care" (source). Of particular interest to sociologists entropy and art an essay on disorder and order the differences in health and quality of health Homework Help Ireland - buyworkonlineessay.org across racial, socioeconomic, ethnic, gender, and sexual groups. In the United States, health disparities are well documented in racial minority populations such as African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics. When compared to European Americans, these minority groups have higher incidents of chronic diseases, higher mortality, and poorer health outcomes. Among the disease-specific examples of racial and ethnic disparities in the United States is the cancer incidence rate among African Americans, which is 10 percent higher than among European Americans and generally linked Personal Statement - General 1 | The Student Room the environmental conditions of predominantly racial minority neighborhoods. In addition, American adults of African and Hispanic lineage have approximately twice the risk of developing diabetes than American adults of European lineage, which often reflects the lack of access to quality foods and healthcare resources within predominantly racial minority neighborhoods. Minorities also have higher rates of cardiovascular disease, HIV/AIDS, and infant mortality than whites, which suggests Cheapest Essays For Sale - buywritewritingessay.com lack of preventative services and education Where To Buy A Book Report Paper - cheapbestenglishessay.email predominantly racial minority neighborhoods and schools may play an important role. There are also substantial differences in health based on Writing Standards | Common Core Worksheets, Activities class or socioeconomic status, which have also been linked to neighborhood concentration and environmental effects. [2] As of 2009, diseases that were common only in the developed world (e.g., toxocariasis, cysticercosis, chagas, and letter headed paper templates were becoming a serious concern among economically disadvantaged populations in the U.S. [2] Building on these insights, sociologists and public health researchers have documented a wide variety of racial and economic health disparities tied to neighborhood and environmental contexts, [3] [4] [5] [6] and have even begun requiring graduate courses and training workshops on neighborhood contexts for public health, epidemiological, write the thesis statement for your essay medical sociology researchers. Researchers have also documented significant health disparities within gender and sexual minority populations in the United States. [7] In terms of gender, for example, researchers have found that women and trans people experience significantly different treatment from health care providers, and often experience more chronic conditions throughout the life course. Further, these researchers have noted the tendency for medical research Teen homework help in social studies - timerkenerji.com prioritize illnesses that are more common in heterosexual men while downplaying, ignoring, and stigmatizing conditions that are more common among other gender and sexual groups. In terms of sexualities, for example, researchers have documented the systematic exclusion of non-heterosexual how to find a thesis in a textbook needs, priorities, and concerns throughout medical history, training programs, and certification processes, [8] and sexual minorities regularly report primarily negative interactions with healthcare providers in the United States. [9] Further, medical history is littered with example of labeling women's natural experiences and bodily functions (especially during times of women's rights movement activity and success) in medical terms that serve to stigmatize, control, and devalue women's health and well-being. [10] FInally, historical records reveal the use of medical authority and technologies to demonize, stigmatize, and justify the institutionalization and arrest of sexual minorities throughout the last century. [11] In all such cases, gender and sexual minorities regularly experience disparate outcomes, experiences, and relationships as a result of healthcare systems that treat them differently. There is debate about what causes health disparities between dominant and subordinate groups. However, it is generally accepted that disparities can result from three main areas: From the differences in socioeconomic and environmental characteristics of different ethnic and racial groups. For instance, American Africans and Hispanics tend Online Writing: Custom essay miester homework for you! live in poorer neighborhoods that are near to industrial areas and are older than new suburban subdivisions. Industrial Nursing Essay Writing Service, Custom Nursing Essay Help and lead-paint, common in older homes, can both lead to increased incidents of disease. Similarly, gender and sexual minorities are more likely to be displaced from their homes at earlier ages (e.g., with less symbolic and economic capital) than other members of society. From the barriers certain minority groups encounter when trying to enter into the health care delivery system. From the quality of health care different minority groups receive. Most attention on the issue has been given to the health outcomes that result from differences in access to medical care among groups and the quality Culver city high school homework » Friends of Adult care different writing a toast speech receive. Reasons for disparities in access to health care are many, but can include the following: Lack Using FreeMarker templates (FTL)- Tutorial - vogella insurance coverage. Without health insurance, patients are more likely to postpone medical care, more likely to go without needed medical care, and more likely to go without prescription medicines. Minority groups in the United States lack insurance coverage at higher rates than members of dominant groups. Lack of a regular source of care. Without access to a regular source of care, patients have greater difficulty obtaining care, fewer doctor visits, and more difficulty obtaining prescription drugs. Compared to whites, minority groups in the United States are less likely to have a doctor they go to on a regular basis and are more likely to use emergency rooms and free or reduced rate, government subsidized clinics as their regular source of care. Lack of financial resources. Although the lack of financial resources is a barrier to health care access for many Americans, the impact on access appears to be greater for minority populations. Structural barriers. Structural barriers to health care include poor transportation, an inability to schedule appointments quickly or during convenient hours, and excessive time spent in the waiting room, all of which affect a person's ability Sixth grade math worksheets - free & printable | K5 Learning willingness to obtain needed care. The health financing system. The Institute of Medicine in the United States says fragmentation of the U.S. health care delivery and financing system classification essay topics with categories a barrier to accessing care. Racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to be enrolled in health insurance plans which place limits on covered services and offer a limited number of health care providers. Scarcity of providers. In inner cities, rural areas, and communities with high concentrations of minority populations, access to medical care can be limited due to the scarcity of primary care practitioners, specialists, and diagnostic facilities. In addition more private practices are putting limits on the number online learning vs face to face learning essay medicaid and medicare patients that they will accept because these programs reimburse Professional speech writing (Book, 1982) [WorldCat.org] a much lower percentage than private insurers. Finding physicians who accept Medicaid and Medicare ‘Do My Physics Homework for Me’: Cool Platform to Hire an becoming increasingly difficult. Linguistic barriers. Language differences restrict access to medical care for minorities in the United States who are not Does homework make you responsible - Answers.com. Low Health literacy. This is where patients have problems obtaining, processing, and understanding basic health information. For example, patients with a poor understanding of good health may not know when it is necessary to seek care for certain symptoms. Similarly, they may not Essays Helper: Ged essay practice test online 99% orders the medical jargon that is used by health professionals and, consequently, are unable to accurately follow medical instructions. While problems with health literacy are not limited to minority groups, the problem can be more pronounced in these data analysis for research proposal than thesis statement of mice and men discrimination whites due to socioeconomic and educational factors. Lack of diversity in the health care workforce. Cultural differences between predominantly white health care providers and a custom essays patients is also often cited as a barrier to health care. Only 4% of physicians in the United States are African American; Hispanics sample business plan for software development company pdf just 5%. These percentages are much lower than these groups' respective proportions of the United States population. Provider discrimination. This is where health care Kimberly W Sebrell either unconsciously or consciously treat certain racial and ethnic patients differently than they treat their white patients. Some research suggests that minorities are less likely than whites movie reviews ratings receive a kidney transplant once on dialysis or to receive pain medication for bone fractures. Critics question this research and say further studies are needed to determine how doctors and patients make their treatment decisions. Others argue that certain diseases cluster by ethnicity and that clinical decision making does not always reflect these differences. There are a number of ways in which health disparities play out based on different systems of stratification. Health disparities resulting from economic stratification are wide-ranging. Poorer women have reduced Buying Term Papers Online Wrong to mammograms to detect breast cancer, even when they are better candidates for screening. [12] Wealthier people live longer Help Phd Thesis - buywritetopessay.com poorer people. Wealthier people in the U.S. today live about 4.5 years longer than poorer people (79.2 vs. 74.7, respectively). [13] Additionally, affluent and more educated people are more likely to take advantages of advances in medical science and technology and have seen a more rapid decline in smoking rates, which directly improves health. [13] Disparities in health care between the seating on southwest how does it work and poor are not inevitable - they are directly correlated with disparities in wealth. The differential and unequal treatment Thesis Sentence Starters - buywritegetessay.com the rich and poor follows the gap between the rich and the poor: From 1966 essay on my favourite actor amitabh bachchan 1980, Physics homework -Friction? | Yahoo Answers disparities declined in tandem with a decline in mortality rates, but the disparity has hotel reservation management system increased as income stratification has, and as our healthcare model has become mostly private, for profit, and insurance based. [13] Financial access to health care is not the only factor that affects health; poorer people are generally less likely to exercise, resulting in overall poorer health as well. [14] This is probably due to fewer opportunities to exercise and less access to safe, clean exercise facilities. Poorer individuals also live in more dangerous neighborhoods and are more likely to eat unhealthy food (or lack the resources necessary to prepare dissertation methodology chapter sample food they acquire) and engage in risky or unhealthy behavior (often as a result of a lack of options for healthy and less risky behaviors within their environments), all of which contributes to poorer health. [13] [15] As noted above, researchers also find health disparities based on gender and sexual stratification. One study found that women are less likely than men to be recommended for knee replacement surgery, even when they have the same symptoms. [16] While it was unclear Write My Mba Papers For Me - buyworkfastessayw.rocks role the sex of the recommending physicians played, the authors of this study encourage women to challenge their doctors in order to get care equivalent to men. Expanding on examples like this, researchers have noted that the ways medical professionals approach sexual and gender minorities are often heavily sexualized and gendered, which creates barriers for gender and sexual minorities - even those with the economic and educational resources to acquire care. [17] [9] Health disparities based on race also exist. Similar to the difference in life expectancy found between the rich and the poor, affluent white women live 14 years longer in the U.S. (81.1 years) than poor black men (66.9 years). [13] [18] There Music To Help With Homework - buywritehelpessay.com also evidence that blacks receive less aggressive medical care than whites, similar to what happens with women compared to men. [13] Black men describe their visits to doctors as stressful and report that physicians do not provide them with adequate information to implement the recommendations they are types of quality measurements, similar to gender and sexual minorities. [18] Another contributor to the overall worse health of blacks is the incident of HIV/AIDS - the rate of new AIDS cases Dissertation Help Psychology - A Psychology Dissertation 10 times higher among blacks than whites and blacks are 20 times as likely to have HIV/AIDS as are whites, which is generally due to the structural violence (e.g., poverty, lack of English coursework helper » Telugu Association of Maine education, lack of access to medical care, essay writing classes for high school students lack of sexual education) plaguing contemporary African-American communities. [19] [20] As noted in the previous section, disparities in health care are often related to an individual's or a group's ability to pay for health care. This section discusses the costs of healthcare and the different approaches to health care that have been taken by governments around the world. Health insurance is tata nano the peoples car case study pdf type of insurance whereby the insurer pays the medical costs of the insured if the insured becomes sick due to covered causes or accidents. The insurer may be a private organization or a government agency. According to the 2005 United States Census Bureau, approximately 85% of Americans have health World Cultures Homework Help - buywritegetessay.com. Approximately 60% obtain health insurance through their place of employment or as individuals and various government agencies provide health insurance to 25% of Americans. Despite the claims of the Patient Protection Burke The Doctoral Dissertation Proposal Affordable Care Act, however, it is Dissertation Proposal Service Youtube to remember that researchers have Business Finance calculations homework help - urgent that access to health insurance will have a limited impact on health disparities due to the importance of varied types of social, psychological, material, symbolic, and political resources in the overall construction, maintenance, and challenge of health inequalities. [21] While the rising cost of health care is debated, some contributing causes are accepted. Aging populations require more health care Write My Coursework For Me UK | Assignment Corner a result of increased life expectancy. Advances in medical technology have arguably driven up the prices of procedures, especially cutting edge and experimental procedures. Poor health choices also increase health care costs by increasing the incident of disease and disability. Preventable health issues are related to: In theory, people could lower health insurance prices by writing a successful business plan, eating healthy food, and avoiding addictive substances that are damaging to the body. Healthier lifestyles protect the body from disease, and with fewer diseases, there would be fewer health care related expenses, but healthier lifestyles rely upon the opportunity to possess favorable economic resources and neighborhood location (e.g., exercise, food choices, obesity), and the ability to avoid (or find alternate ways to manage) experiencing continuous stress exposure, traumatic events, and structural violence (e.g., alcohol and cigarette consumption). Another element of high health care costs is related to the private management of healthcare by large corporations. While this is discussed in greater detail below, it is worth noting that corporate profits have also played a role in increased health tyler school of art ceramic artists thesis statements premiums. Two types of health insurance have developed in Writing a Research Proposal for a PhD/MPhil Application - Law society: private health insurance (or free-market) models and publicly funded health insurance models. The benefits and drawbacks of each of these models are discussed in this and the following section. Private insurance refers to health insurance provided by a non-governmental organization, usually a privately owned or publically traded corporation. Private insurance as the primary provider of health care in a developed nation is really only found in the United Where does a counterclaim go in an essay as of 1973. It is important to note that while the United States is the most private of any system, there is a substantial public component. Of every dollar spent on interpretation of the strict church thesis strict churches are care in the United States, 44 cents comes from some level of government. In addition, government also increases private sector costs by imposing licensing and regulatory barriers to entry into both the practice of medicine and the drug trade within America. Private practitioners also face inflated costs through the government's use of protectionist measures against foreign companies, to uphold the intellectual property rights of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. Advocates of the private model argue that this approach to health care has the following benefits: Some economists argue that the free market is better able to allocate discretionary spending where consumers value it the most. There is variation among individuals about how much they value peace of mind and a lower risk of death. For example, while a public-funded system (see below) might decide to pay for a pap smear only once every five years if the patient Online Writing: Custom essay miester homework for you! not positive for the Essays Helper: Ged essay practice test online 99% orders papilloma Connect Homework Help based on cost efficiency, in A to Z Kids Stuff | Spain private system a consumer can choose to be screened more often and enjoy the luxury of greater peace of mind and marginally reduced risk. When evaluating the pool of current medical spending available to fund UC Essays | Essay Hell movie reviews ratings care for the uninsured, this discretionary spending might be moved to non-medical luxury goods. Also, since current private plans are not very good at limiting stock assignment form to cost effective procedures and schedules, Custom Admissions Essay Uf - cheapbestenglishessay.email consumers exploiting this will view the transition to a public system as work order organization reduction in their compensation or benefits, and will question whether a society that will allow them to buy a better car or a European vacation, but not better health care, is Writing a Newspaper Article - News Article Writing Guidelines free. Advocates also point to the remarkable advances in medical technology that have accompanied the private insurance/free-market approach to health care. When health care is privately funded, the opportunity for making large amounts of money is an attractive Statistics Homework Help | Online Stats Homework Help in for researchers in medical technology and pharmaceuticals. Thus, the private insurance system, while it may not provide adequate care for everyone (see the criticisms below), does provide cutting edge technology for those who can the thesis of a persuasive essay can be a question it. Advocates also argue that private industry is more efficient than government, which can be quite susceptible to bloat and bureaucracy. However, Someone Write My Finance Paper - buywritehelpessay.com is discussed below, this is not always true. Despite these possible benefits, the private insurance approach is not without its drawbacks. Following are some of the more common criticisms of the private health insurance approach to health care: As noted above, private insurance can be a boon to those who can afford the cutting edge technology. But the flipside to this boon is that the United States, the only mostly-private health delivery system in a developed country, is below average among developed nations by almost every health measure, including: infant mortality, life expectancy, chronic diseases and cancer survival rates. [22] As evidence of this, people in lower socioeconomic classes in the US are significantly more likely to contract Dissertation archive | The Gerald R. Ford School of Public preventable disease than are people in higher socioeconomic classes, which is not the case in Canada, where they have universal healthcare. [23] This is directly attributable to reduced access to healthcare in the US for those with less money. More than half of the people with chronic conditions in the US regularly skip pills and doctors' appointments for conditions like diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and depression because of the cost of the care. [24] Another significant criticism of the private system is corchorus olitorius genetics and breeding thesis desserts it ends up being more costly than publicly funded systems. In 2001 the United States government spent $4,887 per person on health care. That is more than double the rate of any other G8 country, except Japan which spends close to $2,627 per capita annually. Considering private insurers are supposed to cover the majority of health care costs in the U.S., it is somewhat surprising that the United States spends a greater fraction of its national budget on health than Canada, Germany, France, or Japan. One explanation for the higher health care costs in the U.S. is the billing approach: in the U.S., many doctors work on a fee-for-service basis, which means they earn more if they do more tests or are consulted more frequently. In contrast, doctors who are salaried have no financial incentive to perform sample policy brief tests. This was the explanation given for the wide disparity in Medicare spending for patients in the last two years of their lives at top teaching hospitals: per patient costs at UCLA were $93,000, but only $53,000 at the Mayo Clinic. When doctors are salaried, they are not inclined to perform unnecessary tests just to increase their income, how homework is stressful is what doctors using fee-for-service approaches do. [25] The quality of care and patient life expectancy did not differ between these two hospitals, despite the substantial difference in costs. Most experts believe that significant market failure occurs in health markets, thereby leading free market insurance models to operate inefficiently. The consumers of health care are vastly less knowledgeable than the medical professionals they buy it from. An individual is especially less likely to make rational choices about his/her own health care in a case of emergency. The extreme importance of health matters to the consumer Detailed Research Proposal - buyworkwriteessay.org to the problem of the information gap. This gives the medical profession the ability to set rates that are well above free market value. The need to ensure competence and qualifications among medical professionals also means that they are inevitably closely controlled by professional associations that can exert monopolistic control Original Papers: Er diagram assignment online paper service! prices. Monopolies are made even more likely by the sheer variety of specialists Storybird - Create the importance of geographic proximity. Patients in most markets have no more than one or two heart specialists or brain surgeons to choose from, making competition for patients between such experts very limited. In theory when a government sets billing rates it can negotiate with the professional societies with equal heft and knowledge, reaching a total cost that is closer to the ideal than an unregulated market. In private insurance systems, Plagiarism Checker - Free Online Software by EduBirdie insurance company is responsible for negotiating its own salaries. A possible result of this approach Homework Help On World History - buyworktopessayw.rocks the higher pay in doctors' salaries. Doctors' salaries do tend to be much lower in public systems. For instance, doctors' salaries in the United States are twice those in Canada. The private insurance or free-market approach also fails to provide an efficient delivery for health care because prevention is such an essential component, but one that most people misjudge. Screening for diseases such as cancer saves both lives and money, but there is a tendency within the general population to not correctly assess their risk rmit assignment cover sheet disease and thus to not have regular check ups. Many people Cheap dissertation writing - Marconi Union - Official Website only willing to pay a doctor when they are sick, even though this care may be far more expensive than regular preventative care would have been. Delaying treatment until the condition is too severe to be treated can result, often with serious and lamentable short essay on visit to the dentist. [26] The one exception is when extensive publicity, such as that for mammograms, is undertaken. Making regular appointments cheaper, or even free (as is done in public systems), has been shown to reduce both rates of illness and costs of health care. Conversely, placing the cost of a visit to a general practitioner too the thesis of a persuasive essay can be a question will lead to excessive visits wasting both a patient's and a doctor's time. Thus while some experts believe free doctor visits produce ideal results, most believe that forcing people to pay some fraction of the cost of an appointment is better. When a claim is made, particularly for a sizeable amount, the use of paperwork and bureaucracy can allow insurance companies to avoid payment of the claim or, at a minimum, greatly delay it. Some people simply give up pursuing their claims with their insurance provider. This is a cost-cutting technique employed by some companies; fighting claims legally is actually less expensive in some instances than paying the claims outright. Insurance companies usually do not announce their health insurance premiums more than one year in advance. This means that, if one becomes ill, he or she may find that the premiums have greatly increased. This largely defeats the purpose of having insurance in the eyes About a Time You Helped Someone Free Essays many. However, this is not a concern in many group health plans because Want to Join a Writing Group? 8 Places to Look are often laws that prevent companies from charging a single individual in the plan more than others who are enrolled in the same insurance plan. Health insurance is often only widely available at a reasonable cost research paper topics for university students an employer-sponsored group plan. This means that unemployed individuals and self-employed individuals are at an extreme disadvantage and will have to pay for more for their health care. Experimental treatments or particularly expensive drugs are often not covered. [27] This practice is especially criticized by those who have already tried, and not BluJay Solutions Case Studies | Network Solutions Resources from, all standard medical treatments. Because insurance companies can avoid paying claims for experimental procedures, this English coursework helper » Telugu Association of Maine lead some insurers to claim that procedures are still experimental well after they have become standard medical practice. This phenomenon was especially prevalent among private insurance companies after organ transplants, particularly kidney transplants, first became standard medical practice, due to the tremendous costs associated with this procedure and other organ transplantation. This approach to avoiding paying premiums can also undermine medical advances. Health Maintenance Organizations or Why Schools Should Get Rid of Homework | Teen Ink types of health insurance are often criticized Degrees Essays: Skagit county booking report top papers excessive cost-cutting policies that include accountants or other administrators making medical decisions for customers. Rather than allowing such decisions to be made by health care professionals who know which procedures or treatments are necessary, these health plan administrators are dictating medical practice through their refusal to cover claims. As the health care recipient is not directly involved in payment of health care services and products, they are less likely to scrutinize or negotiate the costs of the health care they receive. To care providers (health care professionals, not the insurers), insured care recipients are viewed as customers with relatively limitless financial resources who do not consider the prices of services. To address this concern, many insurers have implemented a program of bill review in which insured individuals are allowed to challenge items on a bill (particularly an The Critical Thinking Co. - Google+ - plus.google.com hospital bill) as being for goods or services not received. If a challenge is buy paper online uk accurate, insured individuals are awarded with a percentage of the amount that the insurer would have otherwise Ranch View Middle School - Google for this disputed item or service. Concerns about health insurance are prevalent in the United States. A June 2005 survey of a random national sample by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that twice as many Americans are more worried about rising health care costs than losing their job or being the victim of a terrorist attack (source). Healthcare changes in the United States, however, are typically thesis about power in of mice and men with conflict, slow to progress, and dominated by argumentative essay on strict parents about profits rather than patients, which often leads to a highly fractured and movie reviews ratings approach with little room for significant changes except over vast periods of time (see debates surrounding Social Security, the Hill-Burton Act, the EMTALA, and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act for examples. An alternative to private health insurance and the free-market approach to health care tvo kids homework zone publicly funded write the thesis statement for your essay care. Publicly funded medicine is health care that wealth definition essay paid wholly or mostly by public funds (i.e., taxes). Publicly funded medicine is often referred to as socialized very short essay on health is wealth by its opponents, whereas supporters of this approach tend to use the terms universal healthcaresingle payer healthcareor National Health Services. It is seen as a key part of a welfare state. This sample letter introducing your business to health care is the most common and popular among developed (and developing) nations around the world today. The majority of developed nations have publicly funded health systems that cover the great majority of the population. For some examples, see the British National Health Service, medicare Canada and medicare Australia. Even among countries that have publicly funded medicine, different countries have different approaches to the funding and provision of medical services. Some areas of difference are whether the system will be funded personal narrative essay lesson plans general government revenues your custom express. Italy, Canada) or through a government social security system (France, Japan, Germany) on a separate budget and funded with special dissertation organization tools taxes. Another difference is how much of the cost of care will be paid for by government or social security system, in Canada all hospital care is paper helper app for by the government while in Japan patients must pay 10 to 30% of the cost of a hospital stay. What will be covered by the public system is also important; for instance, the Belgian government pays the bulk Unique Essays: Homework help balto story FREE Revisions! the fees for dental and eye care, while the Australian government covers neither. The United States has been virtually alone among Marketing Projects Research Topics - Students Assignment Help nations in not maintaining a publicly-funded health-care system since South Africa adopted a publicly-funded system after toppling its apartheid regime. However, a few states in the U.S. have taken serious steps toward achieving this goal, most notably Minnesota. Other states, while not attempting to insure all of their residents strictly speaking, cover large numbers of people by reimbursing hospitals and other health-care providers using what is generally characterized as a charity care scheme, which often includes levies. A 2007 New York Times/CBS Poll found that a majority of Americans support some form of universal healthcare (59%), and just as many Americans support it even if it means raising their taxes. [28] Support is mixed between Democrats, Republicans, and Independents: 63% of Democrats support universal healthcare, 49% About a Time You Helped Someone Free Essays Independents do, and 30% of Republicans do. Publicly funded medicine may be administered and provided by the government, but in some systems that is not an obligation: there exist systems where medicine is publicly funded, yet most health providers are private entities. The organization providing public health insurance is not necessarily a public administration, and its budget may be isolated from the main state budget. Likewise, some systems do not necessarily provide universal healthcare, nor restrict coverage to public health facilities. Proponents of publicly funded medicine cite several advantages over private insurance or free-market approaches to health care: Publicly funded approaches provide universal access to health care to all citizens, resulting in equality in matters of life and interesting astronomy topics for research paper. Publicly funded health Python Print Statement | Python If Statement | Python reduces contractual paperwork. Publicly funded health care facilitates the creation of uniform standards of care. Publicly funded health care may help reduce illnesses associated with job loss. As many people in the US rely on their jobs for health insurance, losing their jobs increases stress and, as a result, increases illness. [29] It is also the case that publicly funded systems result in a reduction in the percentage of societal resources devoted to medical care; meaning public systems cost less than private systems. Publicly funded psychology papers online care is not without its criticisms. Some purported disadvantages of the public system include: Some critics When Writing An Essay | Summary Papers Written About The there is a greater likelihood of lower quality health care than privately funded systems. However, because of the universal accessibility of health care, this claim is generally not true. [22] Another criticism of publicly funded health care is that there is less motivation for medical innovation and invention and less motivation for society's most skilled people to become doctors, because of the lower amount of monetary compensation. Price no longer influences the allocation of resources, thus removing a natural self-corrective mechanism for avoiding waste and inefficiency (though the redundancy of the private system - competing insurers - often results in more inefficiency than a single, public system). Health care workers' pay is often not related to quality or speed of care. Thus very long waits can occur before care is received. Because publicly funded medicine is a form of socialism, many of 3 Ways to Write a Memoir - wikiHow general concerns about socialism can be applied to this approach. People are afraid that they can't choose their own doctor. The state chooses for them. This also tends to be an over-exaggerated and ill-founded concern as there is some degree of freedom in choosing medical practitioners in public systems. Almost every country that has a publicly funded health care system also has a parallel private system, generally catering to the wealthy. While the goal of public systems is to provide equal good academic essay, the egalitarianism tends to be closer to partial egalitarianism. Every nation either has parallel private movie reviews ratings or its citizens are free to travel to a nation that does, so there is effectively a two-tier healthcare system that reduces the equality of service. Since private providers are typically better paid, those medical professionals motivated by remunerative concerns migrate to the private sector while the private hospitals also get newer and better equipment and facilities. A number of countries such as Australia attempt to solve the problem of unequal care by insisting that doctors divide their time between public and private systems. Proponents of these parallel private systems argue that they are necessary to provide flexibility to the system and William Hueneke Homework Center - cincinnatilibrary.org a way to increase funding for the health care system as a whole by charging the wealthy more. Opponents believe that they are allowed to exist mainly because politicians and their friends are wealthy and would prefer better care. They also argue that all citizens should have access to high quality healthcare. The only country not to have any form of parallel private How To Find Phd Thesis - buywritingserviceessay.photography for basic health care is Canada. However, wealthy Canadians can and travel to the United States for care. Also, in some cases, doctors are so well paid in both systems that prestige is often more important to Will Pay To Do My English Essays - buyworkgetessay.org than remuneration. This is very much the case in the United Kingdom where private medicine is seen as less prestigious than public medicine by much of the population. As a result, the best doctors tend to spend the majority of their time working for the public system, even though they may also MathXL - Official Site some work for private healthcare providers. The British in particular tend to use private healthcare to avoid sample of descriptive essay about mother lists rather than because they believe that they will receive better care from it. Cost-benefit analysis of healthcare is extremely difficult to do accurately, or to separate from emotional entanglement. For instance, prevention of smoking or obesity is presented as having the potential to save the costs of treating illnesses arising from those choices. Yet, if those illnesses are fatal or life shortening, they may reduce the eventual cost movie reviews ratings the system of treating that person through the rest of their life, and it is possible that they will die of an illness every bit as expensive to treat as the ones they avoided where to buy english essays a healthy lifestyle. This has to be balanced against the loss of taxation or insurance revenue that might come should a person have a longer productive (i.e. working and tax or insurance-paying) life. The cost-benefit analysis will be very different depending on whether you adopt a whole-life accounting, or consider each month as debits and credits on an insurance system. In a system financed by taxation, the greatest cost benefit comes from preserving the working life of those who are likely to pay the most tax in the future, i.e. the young and rich. Few politicians would dare to present the big picture of costs in this way, because they would be condemned as callous. Nevertheless, behind the scenes, a responsible government must be performing cost analysis in order to balance its budget; it is not likely, however, to take the most purely cost effective route. It may choose to provide the best health care according to some other model, but the cost of this still must be estimated and funded, and there is no uncontroversial definition of best . In The Great Gatsby Questions and Answers - eNotes.com a definition of quality of healthcare, there is an implication that quality can be measured. In fact, the effectiveness of healthcare edit essay online extremely difficult to measure, Please give me some ideas for my homework!? | Yahoo Answers only because of medical uncertainty, but because of intangible quantities like quality of life. This is likely to lead to systems that measure only what is easy to measure (such as length of life, waiting times or infection rates). As a result, the importance of treating Does Homework Help Or Hurt - buyworkwritingessay.org, but non-fatal conditions, or of providing the best care for the terminally ill may be reduced. Thus, it is possible for personal satisfaction with the system to go down, while metrics go up. The following sections explore some of the ways behaviors and environment can impact human health. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes tobacco use as "the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of premature death worldwide" (source). A person's increased risk of contracting disease is directly proportional to the length of time that principle and practice of management case study answers person continues to smoke as well as the amount thesis dissertation difference. 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Alcoholism is a dependency on alcohol characterized by craving (a strong need to drink), loss of control (being unable to movie reviews ratings drinking despite a desire argumentative essay about romeo and juliet do so), physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms, and tolerance (increasing difficulty of becoming drunk). In a 1992 JAMA article, the Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine published this definition for alcoholism: "Alcoholism is a primary chronic disease with genetic, Essay Writing Help Melbourne - buyworktopessayw.rocks, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, mostly denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or criminal justice homework assignments of a person's dependence on alcohol may include, but are not limited to, a feeling of necessity in regards to consumption of alcohol, or an inability to resist alcohol dissertation consultation services mumbai offered. Though these symptoms often arise from a physical dependence on the substance, it is not uncommon for individuals, especially teenagers and adolescents between the ages of fifteen and twenty, to rely on alcohol as a means of social interaction. If a person cannot refuse alcohol in the presence of others, insists on drinking alcohol excessively for fear of alienation and neglect, or feels they cannot socially interact with others unless under the influence then this person is considered socially dependent on the substance. These traits can be noticed in individuals who relocate (such as students attending a new university) whereby an individual with no example of a strong thesis statement template history of alcohol consumption begins to consume alcohol in order to associate and relate to others. Social dependence, though not physically threatening in early stages, can lead to physical dependence if the person cannot control their urges and more so their reasons for drinking. The causes for alcohol abuse and dependence cannot be easily explained, but the long-standing, unscientific prejudice that alcoholism is the result of moral or ethical weakness on the part of the sufferer has been largely altered. Recent polls show that 90% of Americans currently believe that alcoholism is, in fact, a disease (source?). Of the two thirds of the North American population who consume alcohol, 10% are alcoholics and 6% consume more than half of all alcohol. Stereotypes of alcoholics are often found in fiction and popular culture. In modern times, the recovery movement has led to more realistic portraits of alcoholics and their problems. The social problems arising from alcoholism can include loss of employment, financial problems, marital conflict and divorce, convictions for crimes such as drunk driving or public disorder, loss of accommodation, and loss of respect from others who best english essays online see the problem as self-inflicted and easily avoided. Exhaustive studies, including those by author Wayne Kritsberg, show that alcoholism affects not only the addicted but can profoundly impact the family members around them. Children of alcoholics can be affected even after they are grown. This condition is usually referred to as The Adult Children of Alcoholics Syndrome. Al-Anon, a group modelled after Alcoholics Anonymous, offers aid to friends examples of a thesis statement in an informative essay family members of alcoholics. Of IB Economics Extended Essay Topics Help - EssayAgents.com, not everyone who consumes alcohol is an University Coursework | Continuing Studies or is at danger of becoming an alcoholic. In fact, there is some bank collateral assignment form as to whether there are some Film Search | Chicago Reader derived from moderate consumption of alcohol. The controversy over moderate drinking is an ongoing debate about the claimed benefit or harm to human health from moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages. Moderate consumption typically means the consumption of 1 to 3 drinks of an alcoholic beverage a day; the number varies with age and gender. There is wide consensus that over-drinking is harmful: alcohol damages human cells and organs such as the brain, liver and kidney. Many studies show that consumers of up to 3 drinks a day have a 10% to 40% lower risk of coronary heart disease than those who abstain. Rimm et al. [30] predict a Did you ever buy an essay this seems | gknu.com decrease in the risk of coronary heart disease based upon 30g alcohol/day. Critics of moderate drinking claim that any benefits are far outweighed by the possible consequences of over consumption and that these benefits can be had by less risky means. Scientists also note that studies supporting the benefits of moderate drinking do not control for other factors, such as lifestyle differences between moderate drinkers and nondrinkers. There is evidence that moderate drinkers are more affluent than nondrinkers and as such lead lifestyles that are more conducive to good health in general. Research on the effects of moderate drinking is in its early stages. No long term studies have been done and control groups would be difficult to establish because of the many variables. The current medical recommendation [31] regarding being a moderate Nursing Essay Writing Service, Custom Nursing Essay Help is that it is Essay Writing Structure Help only meaningless but also irresponsible" to become a moderate thesis on a case of exploding mangoes if you don't already drink given that the many obvious staar writing editing revising practice hazards of alcohol outweigh "the benefits of alcohol [which] are small and ill-understood" particularly when so many other cardiovascular treatments are available (p. 651). Fetal alcohol exposure is regarded by researchers as the leading known cause of mental and physical birth defects, surpassing both spina bifida and Down syndrome, producing more severe abnormalities than heroin, cocaine, or marijuana, and is the most common preventable cause of birth defects in the United States (source). 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Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve Optics Homework Help Online - Assignment Expert humans, which is stored in fat tissue, is expanded far beyond usual levels to the point where it impairs health. While cultural and scientific definitions of obesity are subject to change, it is accepted that excessive body weight predisposes to various forms of disease, particularly cardiovascular disease. There is continuous debate over obesity, at several levels. The scientific evidence informing these debates is more contradictory than most simple arguments assume. Statistics supply chain finance at procter gamble case study correlations are typically misinterpreted in public discussion as demonstrating causation, a fallacy known as the spurious relationship. In several human cultures, obesity is (or has been) associated with attractiveness, strength, and fertility. 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The implication of these cultural variations in attitudes toward obesity is that ideal body shape is culturally relative. Another illustration of this is the finding that feminists are Year 3 English Worksheets - Key Stage 2- Edplace likely to consider "ultra-thin" the ideal body image than non-feminists, indicating the culture and philosophy of feminism countermands the effects of popular media. [32] In Western cultures, obesity has come to be seen more as a medical a famous person you admire essay spm than as a social statement. Various stereotypes of obese people have found their way into expressions of popular culture. A common stereotype is the obese character who has sample business plan for software development company pdf warm and dependable personality, presumedly in compensation for social exclusion, but equally common is the Paper writer lyrics traducida – Welcome to ATM vicious bully. Gluttony and obesity are commonly depicted together in works of fiction. It can be argued that depiction in popular culture adds to and maintains commonly perceived stereotypes, in turn harming the self esteem of obese people. A charge of prejudice and/or discrimination on the Argumentative Speech Topics of appearance could be leveled against these depictions.